An introduction to Cephalexin
Cephalexin belongs to the class of antibiotics which is in crystal powder. The colour of the Cephalexin is typically yellow or white. Cephalexin cannot mix in chloroform, ethanol or ether but can easily get mixed in water. Cephalexin belongs to the first generation cephalosporins and it is a semi-synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is an ideal medication for curing the infection caused in the urinary tract, respiratory tract and soft skin tissues by penicillinase sensitive bacteria.
Cephalexin is an ethical drug, and it should be purchased under the doctor’s advice only as it has allegorical simulation reaction.
The pharmacology of Cephalexin
The Cephalexin binds one or more PBSs or penicillin-binding proteins of the bacteria and abstains the bacterial cell generation and synthesis in dividing cells. The Cephalexin antibacterial spectrum is similar to Cefalotin, but when we talk about the antibacterial activity property, then Cefalotin is weaker than Cephalexin. Gram-positive cocci, which is a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is also sensitive to Cephalexin. The affected bacterium is impacted contrarily. Haemophilus is affected below par; Salmonella is modified at a certain level, and Neisseria is affected relatively well. On the other hand, Bacteroidesfragilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are resistant to cephalexin.
Cephalexin liquid has excellent absorbing property. When one take the Cephalexin 500mg empty stomach, in an hour the blood plasma peak will occur in an hour, which is equivalent to 18μg/ml. And the drug can be located in the drug can be found in sputum, joint cavity exudates, pus, amniotic fluid, lung, liver, spleen, cord blood and kidney with the distribution volume of 0.26L/kg.
Cephalexin can easily permeate the breast milk, but difficult to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Also, when the lactating women or breastfeeding women consume the 0.5g Cephalexin oral, then the concentration of Cephalexin in breast milk is 5μg/ml.
However, the binding rate of protein and Cephalexin is between 10%~15%. Also, the half value period of Cephalexin in Human body is 0.6 hours to one hour. But, when patient experience the renal dysfunction the half-value period increases between 5 and 30 hours. Also, in newborn the half-value period is 6.3 hours.
You must understand that Cephalexin is filtered by the glomerular in the prototype and is not metabolised in the body then discharged with tubular secretion. Also, the 5 percent of an oral dosage is released by the bile. However, after 24 hours period, the 80 percent of administered Cephalexin is released via urine.
When a patient is taking the oral dose of 500 mg Cephalexin, then the peak concentration in urine can reach to 2,200μg/ml. Hence, genitourinary system disorders are treated by Cephalexin. The methods like peritoneal or hemodialysis dialysis can be used to remove the Cephalexin from the body.
As per the condition of an individual body the dose of Cephalexin is recommended. It is advisable not to drink the Cephalexin in excess to restrain the Kidney function and form hematuria. Typically, the dose for children is lesser than adults.
Child dose is between 25~50 mg every time, and maximum dose level should not be increased more than 200mg. On the other hand, the adult dose is between 250~500mg in the six hours interval. Every day the maximum dose should not be increased more than 4grams.
The primary use of Cephalexin is to mitigate the after-effects of bacterial infection. The symptoms treated with the help of Cephalexin include respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection and soft skin tissue infection, which can be caused by pneumonia, sensitive bacteria, otitis media, angina sinusitis and bronchitis.
When taking the oral dose of Cephalexin, it is advisable to drink lots of water to dilute the urine.
Cephalexin Side Effects
Individuals who are allergic to one strain of Cephalexin Side Effects are susceptible to be allergic to other strains of Cephalexin as well. Individuals who are found allergic to penicillamine or penicillin derivatives may also be allergic to the cephalosporins medicines.
– Pregnant women should be cautious while consuming the Cephalexin and follow their doctor’s advice on same.
– Lactating women also need to be cautious while consuming the oral dose of Cephalexin as it can melt in the breast milk which will reach to baby’s gut and can cause diarrhea.
– Children under the age of 6 years should be under strict guidance while consuming the Cephalexin dose.
– Severe renal and liver dysfunction can occur because the availability of Cephalexin can enhance the load on the liver and renal causing the function reduction in liver and renal both.
– The average plasma peak concentration of Cephalexin can reduce to a minimum level when its oral dose is combined with cholestyramine.
– When one take the probencid at the same time with Cephalexin, it can delay the discharge of the drug through renal excretion and increase the plasma concentration of Cephalexin.
– When to take the Cephalexin the immune response to live typhoid vaccine gets weak due to the antimicrobial activity of Cephalexin on to typhoid Salmonella.
– The level of nephrotoxicity gets increased when an oral dose of Cephalexin is combined with aminoglycoside drug.
Adverse Reactions of Cephalexin
When individuals take the oral dose of Cephalexin, then there may be erythema, typical rash, urticarial, drug fever and other allergic symptoms as well as anaphylactic shock.
- Nervous System Reactions – a few patients can experience diplopia, dizziness, convulsions, tinnitus, and other nervous system responses.
- Blood system – Often there will be symptoms of thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, decreased haemoglobin and neutropenia, etc.
- Gastrointestinal reactions – It is caused by the oral consumption of Cephalexin and its common symptoms of diarrhoea, nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting. Occasionally, pseudomembranous colitis can also occur as the side effect.
- Drug distribution can also cause Hepatotoxicity – After consuming the Cephalexin very few people experience the abnormal liver function.
- Other adverse reactions of Cephalexin – If any individual is on long term medication of Cephalexin then it may cause a deficiency of Vitamin B and Vitamin K, flora and double infection.
- The over drinking of Cephalexin may cause extreme gastrointestinal reactions, body itching, urticarial and drug fever, allergic reactions.